my role
Product Designer, UX Researcher
1. Led user research to define the problem space
2. Communicated with stakeholders to understand constraints
3. Led affinity mapping and ideation to generate design alternatives
4. Proposed and designed Printer Map
5. Planned usability testing and facilitated 4 sessions
6. Drafted agenda for all team meetings and controlled discussion flows
Product Design, Mobile, Web
Aug 2019 - Dec 2019
Georgia Tech Printing Service
Jordan, Lu, Yuhan, Chaoyuan
Sketch, Figma, Miro
design problem
Georgia Tech students get stressed and frustrated by the printing system on campus.
design outcome
We designed the new mobile version of Georgia Tech printing web app, to let students upload printing jobs, find printers, as well as learn how to print, in one stop, on the go. (The desktop version was less relevant to our key problems, and its functionality would be similar)
Check location, status, usage tips of printers, altogether!

1. Crowdsource location description to help students locate printers inside complex buildings
2. Show printer status to prevent students from running into broken printers
3. Drop comments to share different printers’ usage tips with fellow students
Customize your printing, whenever and wherever you want!

1. Configure printing options after uploading, and change options at any time before actually printing files out
2. Print things wrong? Just retrieve wrongly printed files here, adjust printing options, and re-print. No need to go back to your computer to re-upload!
Questions? Check the tutorial, or get your answer from the chatbot!

1. Integrated picture tutorial for new users to learn how to print
2. For specific questions about printing, customize trouble-shooting via a chatbot


I interviewed 1 freshman and 2 Master's students individually, and led all stakeholder interviews.
I structured the survey based on task analysis completed by teammates, as well as analyzed survey results.
Learning 1: Strive for user representativeness!

Being new to Georgia Tech ourselves, it was tempting to interview our MS-HCI classmates, since we hadn’t really known other students. However, I still managed to get a freshman for interview, and some Ph.D. students for survey. Both proved to be valuable: Our behavioral patterns differed a lot more than I expected.
Learning 2: I AM NOT THE USER!

Since I had lots of personal experience and opinions regarding the printing system, I tried hard to prevent myself from loading subjective pre-assumptions into my research activities. (E.g. I always assumed users to have a mental model about uploading files to an institute network, since that’s how it works in most companies and universities. However, a freshman told me she firstly brought her iPad to a printer, attempting to do it via Apple printing, since that how it worked in her high school.)
Mini Challenge: Affinity Mapping took so much time...

1. Bad wording & phrasing of interview notes made interpretation & classification difficult
2. Lack of individual preparation before teamwork session

What would I do differently:
1. Keep needs for analysis & synthesis in mind when taking notes
2. Define individual preparation & agenda before teamwork session
research findings
I summarized user research findings into this user journey map, and stakeholders’ (staff in charge of printing) responses into “External Constraints”. Based on pain points and external constraints, I derived opportunities which guide our later ideation and design.

design objectives
Based on the above summary of research finding, we prioritized key user needs to guide our design. Then, we derived design objectives according to these user needs, also by referring to “Opportunities” in the user journey map.


To meet key user needs as our design objectives, we generated 41 small ideas based on “Opportunities” from the user journey map, each targeting different aspects of the problem. Then we generated 3 major concepts, based on selection and combination of the 41 small ideas.
concept 1: Printer Map
After I proposed the idea, the team made the decision to prioritize it, based on all design objectives.
The team created some sketches for the concept together, and I designed wireframes for this concept based on sketches created by the whole team.
concept 2: chatbot
concept 3: gamification


To get users' opinions regarding functionality, as well as make more informed trade-offs among design ideas, we collect both qualitative feedback and quantitative rating from a poster session, and then summarized pros & cons of all 3 concepts as reference for further design.
Since Printer Map is better at helping students find printers, while Chatbot caters better to printing errors, we decided to incorporate both Printer Map and Chatbot into the current Georgia Tech printing web app. The goal was a centralized, one-stop solution ensuring a seamless printing experience.

I designed “Printer Map” tab, to help students find info about printers’ location and status.
printer map
1. What I kept: Organized printer info by buildings
Why: Multiple printers in the same building have different functionalities and access requirements; other printers in the same building make best choices in case of printer failures; avoid over-plotted map and extensive list

2. What I changed: Showed precise printer status (working/out of ink/out of paper/jammed/broken)
Why: Previous wording of available/unavailable causes misunderstanding ("Does that mean whether the printer is being used or not?")
3. What I kept: I let users suggest edits to location description of printers
Why: Users want accurate and updated info about printer locations. Crowdsourcing let users describe printer locations in the most comprehensible way to their peers. Back-end staff don’t have enough HR to edit location description of all printers, but can review edit requests

4. What I added: Showed buildings of recently visited printers in the search function
Why: Users’ are more familiar with buildings’ names than buildings’ locations on the map; potential shortcut for viewing statuses of frequently used printers
acccount & job list
1. Added the function of retrieving recently printed documents to reprint
Why: 20-minute buffering time saves users’ efforts in error recovery, and limits the burden to the print servers to a reasonable level

2. Alert in case of insufficient funds
Why: Preventing users from running to printers without sufficient funds and getting stuck, not knowing what to do
How to Print
1. Added GIF tutorial as the primary content of “How to Print”
Why: New users need basic intro more than customized solution

2. Chatbot: customized trouble-shooting by selecting and narrowing down problems
Why: Tapping on options is easier than texting or calling; keep the chat history as context; allow easy start-over in case of wrong taps


usability test

1. Evaluate the usability of our design, especially: learnability, consistency, and task conformance
2. Identify further usability issues to guide iterations

1. I defined 7 tasks based on key user needs as our design objectives
2. I selected metrics for measurement: success rate, number of errors, expected VS experienced difficulty, System Usability Score
3. I drafted the session script and moderated 4/6 sessions
Quantitative Results

Since we told users to think-aloud and asked follow-up questions during sessions, our quantitative metrics were distorted and these results merely acted as a reference.
1. System Usability Score: 83.33
2. 4/7 tasks showed lower experienced difficulty than expected difficulty
3. 3/7 tasks achieved success rates higher than 80%
More valuable results were from qualitative side, as discussed in following sections about iterations.
printer map
1. I removed the naming like “Printer 1”, and used the signifier of printer icon + location description to represent individual printers. I colored icons to better indicate printer status.
Why: Users felt naming of “Printer 1” redundant and they cared more about the location. Yet putting location description as the primary signifier would be confusing. There gotta be a signifier telling that these cards represent individual printers.

2. I removed star rating for printers.
Why: Users expressed that if a printer wasn’t working properly, then it should simply be fixed.

3. I removed the help button(question mark icon).
Why: Users mistook the question mark button for reporting/updating printer status, since they were too close. And a help button here would be redundant.
1. I changed “Suggest an edit” to be a button closer to location description, and changed “Rate & Review” to “Drop a comment” closer to comments section.
Why: Violation of proximity principle causes confusion: users mistook “Suggest an edit” to be related to comments section, and “Rate & Review” to be related to location description.

2. I changed the help button from a question mark icon close to printer status, to a button containing text label.
Why: Users mistook the question mark button for reporting/updating printer status, since they were too close.
account & job list
1. Moved “Recently Printed” from “Account” to “Job List” and collapsed it by default.
Why: Users expected to retrieve recently printed files from “Job List”.

2. Added “My Contribution” in “Account”.
Why: Users expected to see statuses of their requests & reviews here.
how to print
1. Added explanations about Chatbot and other printing options.
Why: Users expected “How to Print” to be a one-stop how-to guide.

2. Replaced GIFs with pictures + text description, and added the process of uploading files.
Why: Users expected the tutorial to include the entire process, and GIFs weren’t really necessary.


Printer map
Design Objectives

1. Integrated, concise, and complete printing documentation

2. Updated, accurate, and comprehensible printer location info

3. Visible online info of printer status

4. Better prevention & recovery of printing errors
Account & job list
Design Objectives

1. Integrated, concise, and complete printing documentation

2. Updated, accurate, and comprehensible printer location info

3. Visible online info of printer status

4. Better prevention & recovery of printing errors
how to print
Design Objectives

1. Integrated, concise, and complete printing documentation

2. Updated, accurate, and comprehensible printer location info

3. Visible online info of printer status

4. Better prevention & recovery of printing errors
final prototype
next steps
1. Communicate with the client regarding the actual development. (Which is postponed due to COVID-19……Since nobody prints on campus now……)
2. Conduct further usability tests and iterations with the dev version.
3. Evaluate key features by data analytics on printing activities after the launch: How much do students contribute to info in Printer Map? How much is “Recently Printed” justified for extra burdens added to the database?
1. Before think about solutions, first think about questions: Are we even solving the right problem?
2. Go divergent - convergent iteratively: For each design question, sketch out all possibilities, evaluate pros & cons of each of them, make the decision based on team consensus, then move on to meet new design question.
3. Position team time & individual time clearly: Use individual time for inputs and planning, team time for review, discussion and agreement, then individual time for output and reflection.
4. Team discussion can also be iterative: When get stuck, take a pause, re-consider the problem-solving methodology, or separate out for more input and reflection, and then regroup. Avoid the inefficiency and frustration caused by 2 hours of useless arguing.
5. Learn, then produce: Seek inspiration from commercial solutions, industrial standards, or even others’ portfolio.
6. Have empathy not only for users, but also for teammates. Motivation comes not only from idea and vision, but also from trust and friendship.